This is most likely to be the most boring part in my journal writing about IMUN, terutama yg kurang tertarik bahas isu-isu global beginian wehehe :) I want to write down here what topic is being discussed in my assembly, ARF, Combating Terrorism. So I do understand if there are some of my blog readers yang bakal bosen untuk baca ini hehe. Oh ya, nyesel banget pas sidang kemarin gak bawa kamera karena kameranya ketinggalan di Jateng :c sediiih. Jadi paling foto2 tapi pake kamera temen, en harus nunggu di-upload oleh mereka.
So, Like what I said in part 1, there is a thing called Agenda Setting for the committees who have 2 topics to be discussed. Supposedly we only discuss one topic for the whole conferences: debating, negotiating, lobbying, confronting, and making the working papers and draft resolution.
There are 2 topics in my area (ARF): Combatting Terrorism, and Promoting Democracy: Case Study in Myanmar. Mostly all of us preferred to discuss about terrorism rather than democracy in Myanmar because of 3 things:
1. Terrorism is like a dormant problem. It's also like a landmine, timed-bomb ready to explode anytime. If today we can breathe freely saying that terrorism is no longer a threat, we are wrong. Look what happened about the church's bombing in Solo 2 weeks ago. And just now I've listened that there is a bom exploded in an ATM, in Sleman, Jogjakarta. That's why we need to be very aware about this issue, and working hard to create a resolution; a framework, particularly in ASEAN region, to solve this problem together.
2. Terrorism is still exist because for the past 10 years, we approach it in a wrong perspective, using wrong paradigm, and in a wrong way too. It only comes to our mind that the way to combat terrorism is only through military way, whereas it just slack the surface's problem, but actually does not solve neither address the real root cause of terrorism alone. We believe that there must be other options to tackle this thing as well as military.
3. That the issue of Myanmar is too sensitive to be talked about :) It's not ethic, i think, to discuss and to criticize about a particular political system upheld in a country. I myself do not believe that democracy is the only and the ultimate solution for every problems happening in every country. Democracy is not the only way. Some countries with political system other than democracy can survive as well, maybe with even better economy and prosperity, and the foremost is the enforcement of good law for and by all its citizen. Let us take Singapore, Saudi Arabia, China, and Brunei Darussalam as good examples for us. They are not having democracy, or maybe just half democracy. Even England is still having the monarchy with its King and Queen inside the democracy always heralded by the world.
Well, setelah dengerin suara2 yg pro and kons, maka topik terrorisme dipilih.
Kemudian, selama 3 hari sidang bahasnya juga itu2 aja hehe.
My partner and I representated the Delegate of Indonesia. To be short, Indonesia (us) want to promote and mengenalkan cara-cara kami dalam memberantas terrorisme to other delegates. Dari sidang kemarin, terutama dari hasil diskusi and tukar pikiran dg partner gw, Dimas, i was awed with the way our country has to deal with terrorism. Selama ini yg ada di pikiran kita kan kalo terrorisme itu harus diperangi. Tapi mungkin kita ga pernah tahu/sadar bahwa Indonesia tuh bener2 jadi role model banget buat negara2 lain dalam hal penanganan terrorisme :) I'll make it into some points:
1. Indonesia believes that military is not the only solution to cut terrorism. Soft or non-military approaches are also implemented to deal with it, such as having an interfaith dialogue. It's not strange in our hear to hear such things happen in our country, where religious leaders can come together and sit side by side to discuss about particular issues. I think this is a very good preventive action to spread the radicalism in the public and the grass root level. Indonesia has this event for several times in a year, not only in the local level but we also promote it on the global stage :) Another similar thing is by having cultural or exchange students between countries to give them chances learn about the multicultural and pluralism in ethnicities, races, religion, and cultures. This also have been done by developed countries, such as USA.
2. the cooperation with the family members of the suspected terrorists. This is because one way to track down the root cause of terrorism is by approaching the family members of the suspected person. Unfortunately and sadly, it is not surprisingly that the family members are very reluctant, yet very persistent to cooperate with polices or any other agencies to give the data or infos needed. It is very understandable that they are terrified to be judged, to be condemned, and to be secluded or banned from the society and the surrounding neighborhood. They still have the other problem, that is to face the prosecution and legal punishment from the state. This is not to mention that, since 95% of terrorists are men which could be their husbands, brothers, or fathers, they are already lost the tulang punggung of their family. The father and husband are either dead in doing their "mission" or got caught by the police.
Therefore, in the grieve times, it is important that our officers can persuade them to cooperate with us. One way is by providing them the basic needs: to make sure that there is always food on their table, and that there is enough fee to send their children to school. In Indonesia, it works, and the family members are finally willing to give the detail story how their beloved ones became a terrorist: who influenced them; the changes that they detect in their behavior; and the family can even show any other suspected persons having contact with terrorist.
3. Another soft way that we apply in dealing with terrorism is by engaging respected religious leaders to re-brainwashing the brain of detained terrorist. Why?
This is because, like it or not, terrorist always come with wrong perception of ideology or paradigm from a certain religion. Please do bear in mind that by stating this, I do not have any intention to associate terrorist action with any particular religon. However, it is sadly noticed that the essence of religion always has something to do in terror action happening in the world, such as the claim of holy war or mati syahid. I myself strongly believe that religion is very sensitive issue, and that there is no single religion in the world teaching how to bomb or to kill others, suicide bombing, etc. It is once again fully regrettable that there are still some people who misinterpret some verses or phrases from a holy book of their religion, and they use those verses to justify their action.
Noting that the terrorist already perceived the government as their foremost and eternal enemy (altough NOT all terrorist target the government), it is highly impossible to have them listen to us (govt). No matter what kind of interrogation being held and in what way, they are strongly determined to keep their mouth shut and not to spit out a single word explaining why they do this and that. The state alone can not combat this action, therefore it is crucial to engage respected religious leaders, such as priests and ulemmas to convince their already-brain-washed mind to abandon their false perspective.
And in Indonesia, again, it WORKS :) When my university had a seminar about "Combatting Terrorism in ASEAN's way", one of the note speaker came from Densus 88. He explained to us how effective it is to have religious leaders work with them. And among hundreds (suspected) terrorist got caught, at least 200 of them repented and voluntarily cooperative with the police to show and to catch their other terrorist-friends.
3. Indonesia also propose that we give the detained terrorist a skill training and capitals to improve their capacity. This is very vital as once after they got released, they will not doing the same evil thing again. Only capture them in prison is never enough, in fact, they can even share their experience and learn another more sophisticated method in conducting terror actions. It's even more dangerous if the detained terrorist spread their ideology and their method to other fellow-friends in the jail!
4. We also believe that dealing with the terrorist must not neglect the essence of Human Right. We give them the legal trial first/put them into court, and we try our best that we can to give impartial court. Being a terrorist doesn't mean that they deserve less humane treatment, or to be convicted or punished without proper trial. In Indonesia, it's no longer weird to see a police have a prayer together with the detainees. The condition we have is totally different like in Guantanamo or Abu Ghraib's prison.
5. The proposal of having a negotiation with terrorist. This is the hottest issue to be debated among delegates, since many did not believe on its effectiveness. What's the point of negotiate with terrorist?? Soalnya begini guys, di negosiasi itu kan kedua belah pihak harus setara kedudukannya. Biasanya ini adalah negara dg negara, ato antara organisasi. Nah, kalo negara ngajak ngobrol2 terroris, berarti kita nganggap terroris itu punya kedudukan yg sama dg negara donk?? This could leverage the position of those bad guys. In this case, the difference between pure terrorists with separatist movement is as thin as thread. We consider separatist the same with terrorist if they use terror way, such as killing and bombing mass, to get what they want.
But we counter-argument by saying that, sometimes negotiation DOES WORK. In ANC conflict in South Africa, Moro in the Phillipines, IRA in Northern Ireland, and GAM in Aceh, all of them ended peacefully thanks to negotiation. Through negotiation, the terrorist will perceive that there is other alternative rather than doing terrors to achieve your demand. Psycologically, they terror others because they don't feel that they are accomodated by the government. If the state is willing to sit side by side with them, the possibility to moderate their demand is higher. For example, IRA was finally willing to give Northern Ireland to UK, and only ask Southern Ireland to be liberated. GAM was finally too, willing not to separate from Indonesia, and lower their demand to have special autonomy in the region. Even right now the U.S. government is negotiating with some of Taliban fraction.
If we never ever want to negotiate, it will only prolong the conflict that causes more death: both lives and economy. Take a look of what is happening in the middle east right now: how many times is it that Hamas say explicitly that they are willing to negotiate with Israel, but what they got is only a snap?? the western turn their back off from Palestine, and the conflict still happen. Sometimes we see that the willing to negotiate comes from the friction labeled as terrorist by government.
But of course, the government/state has to SET THE LIMIT first. We will not abide to those terrorists, we are only willing to negotiate with them only if they fulfill these 2 conditions:
a. they have already renounce their violence
b. they moderate their demand
If they still stick on their crazy mind, such as to make a calliphate nations in the world, than the state will not abide to them. It is justifiable for a state to use its military power to crack down the terrorists.
Dan ternyata poin itu banyak sekali yg menentang, tidak setuju, mempertanyakan, dll. Wuaaah --.--
6. Promoting the enhancemen of economic and social development to give people prosperity. This is because most people who become terrorist are coming from poor family without poor access to education or public health. Yes i know that poor people don't always become a terrorist, but mostly terrorist are poor. Misalnya, Osama bin Laden tuh, kan koaya roaya. Dia milyuner dari Arab Saudi loh... But bear in mind that poverty can cause people to be easily influenced by radical ideas, including but not limited to do terror action. That is why, enhancing and strengthening economic development is very crucial. We can achieve this through the accelerating of MDGs program, of which deadline is 2015.
Those things are only a few example how we can deal with terrorism in non-military way. Again, I do not say that military operation is not important nor we should completely neglect military ways. But military is not the only and not the ultimate solution in eradicating terrorism. Take a look when in 2001 and 2003, the U.S. sent its hundred thousands of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan. That was the most deadliest year ever since it caused thousands of civilians death as well as US' troops. Even in doing military operation, we have to do it with utmost caution. Indonesia is respected and well known for its minimum collateral damage everytime we have military operation catching the terrorist. It means that we barely have any citizen who become the victims of our operations. Take the example of military's ambush in catching Dulmatin (iya bukan ya? i forget the name....) in Temanggung, Jawa Tengah. We caught Amrozi, Imam Samudra, Dr. Azhari, Ibrohim alias Boim, etc without causing any civilian's death. The protection of the surrounding citizen always becomes our top priority. This is of course totally different from what see in Iraq and Afghanistan. Even in 2010, the TIME's magazine issued an article titled "What Indonesia can Teach the World", talking about how to deal with terrorism.
Yah, intinya sih kurang lebih seperti itu hehe. My description above is only a glimpse about the thing that we talked during the whole session. Pasti banyak hal-hal yg bisa menjadi pro dan kontra, but we tried the best that we can to collect the data and infos from reliable source. Terrorism itself is very complex, complicated, with multdimensional factors and reasons. It needs to be analysed from economic, socio-cultural, phsycological factor, yet religion factor. Therefore, reading books talking about terrorism is highly encouraged :)
I beg you who read this not to associate this issue with other things :) With all respect, I also beg you not to make any copy of this writing without telling me first.
Selama di sidang, kami banyak berdebat dan adu argumen. Ada delegasi2 yg enak diajak kerjasama, tapi ada juga delegasi2 yg susah banget, en bahkan nyebelin --.-- There was even time when I got really frustrated and don't want to see particular faces haha.
Pada akhirnya, setelah melalui 3 unmoderated caucus dan perdebatan yg alot, Indonesia berhasil menjadi sponsor draft resolusi (DR) bersama Bangladesh & USA (bener loh, USA akhirnya setuju untuk gabung jadi sponsor DR). DR itu akhirnya berhasil pula disetujui oleh semua delegasi lain. And believe me guys, making a DR is not an easy thing. It takes a lot of times, lots of efforts and energy to convince and to persuade other delegate to agree and to comply with our DR. This is because many countries have their own interest, and they want that all of their interests be put in every DR (which is impossible, of course! So we need to make compromise here and there). Di sidang kemarin, peserta sidang ARF adalah 10 negara ASEAN, US, China, Russia, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Jepang, Korut dan Korsel.
Oh ya, for those who don't know what is DR, it's a form of legal documents produced in regional/ international organization to solve a problem. Biasanya badan2 UN tuh selalu punya DR di setiap komitenya. Jadi, dalam menyelesaikan suatu masalah kita ga bisa asal tubruk sana sini, harus ada cara2 dan langkah2 yg dibahas gimana cara menyelesaikannya.
Misalnya, isu Libya kemarin yg berakhir dg resolusi intervensi militer oleh NATO. Proses pembuatannya tuh gak gampang banget, penuh debat di sana sini. Who will conduct the intervention? Who is the leader who will bear the responsibilities? Who will become the donor country? Who should be the donor, a state or a particular institution? How long will this take? Can the action guarantee a better outcome? If it can not, what should we do? etc. Akan sangat susah untuk mengadopsi suatu DR bila kita memakai format yg pengambilan keputusannya itu secara konsensus, in which all parties must agree with it. If there is any single country which cast a "NO" vote, then the resolution is automatically fails. Jadi semua usaha buat bikin DR itu terasa sia-sia. Bentuk format lainnya yg juga sangat menantang adalah UNSC ato Dewan Keamanan PBB. Since there are 5 countries which have VETO right, once they use their veto, the resolution is automatically fails, even if the Yes vote exceeds the No vote. Nah, karena gw di komite ARF yg butuh konsensus, makanya proses lobbying itu getol dan alot sekali. Sampe2 rasanya udah judeg ngadepin orang yg susah banget untuk diyakinkan.
Selama sidang 4 hari itu, gw dan temen2 lain tidur kurang dari 6 jam sehari. Soalnya pagi-pagi kami sidang sampe jam 6 sore, kemudian balik ke apartemen dianter busnya UI, dan di apartemen kita masih harus lobbying, negotiating, consulting, confronting, and convincing others. Juga masih harus ketak ketik working paper (WP) and draft resolution (DR). Kami bobo paling awal tuh jam 12 malem, besoknya jam setengah 8 pagi dah dijemput bus UI buat sidang jam 9 pagi sampe jam 5 sore. Yah gitu terus acaranya hehe. tapi makanan dan snack sih so pasti terjamin :p
Selama di IMUN, i gained a lot of knowledge & experience. I met with lots of students from universities across Indonesia. They are not only IR (International Relations) students, but coming from other majors as well, like Law, Management, etc. Soalnya kalo bicara isu2 gini, the general knowledge about social, economic, international law, cultures, and business are also need as well as politics. Lewat IMUN inilah gue juga belajar kehidupan diplomat dan politikus yg sesungguhnya. Gw belajar untuk lebih menghargai kerja para diplomat (asal bukan diplomat yg gabut alias gaji buta) kita, dan juga orang2 di badan2 internasional lain.
And the new friends that I know, are all brilliant students with brilliant ideas & mind. I saw a lot of potential and the future young diplomats from Indonesia. I do hope that by writing this, and you guys who are reading this, will feel no more resentment toward this country. Indonesia bisa kok, mewakili di dunia internasional. Indonesia bisa menjadi negara dg bargaining position yg tinggi.
Last but not least, I would like to say my greatest thank you to my partner, Dimas, who had been very awesome and cooperative partner, yet my head delegate, during the whole conference. I learned a lot from you, not only about substansial matter in IMUN, but other things as well :) It's such an honor to work with you, mate!
And also, I thank you who read the whole writing from the beginning until the end. I know it's kind of boring reading this, but thank you for bearing with me!